Understanding of fundamental marksmanship principles for the most accurate shot, regardless of range
Understanding of the Minute of Angle (MOA) or milliradian (mil), how it relates to long distance shooting, and how your scope uses it
Understanding the effects of range, wind, weather, elevation, and altitude on the shot
Understanding of second shot corrections, either as a spotter or shooter, eliminating guesswork and “luck” from the equation
Understanding equipment needed to make long range shots and how to best employ them in the field
Overall, a shooter proficient in the concepts of long range shooting, able to make consistent shots at the shooter’s maximum effective range and able to evaluate field conditions to determine what that maximum effective range may be.